Author Topic: Elicitation Techniques in Business Analysis  (Read 15764 times)

12123162110

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Re: Elicitation Techniques in Business Analysis
« Reply #90 on: March 07, 2022, 08:17:03 pm »
Elicitation techniques are the methods that are used to capture the requirements of the project stakeholders. There are many techniques, but 11 techniques are often used by Business analysts.
1. Brainstorming: in this technique, key stakeholders gather and discuss requirements. It is initiated by BA. This technique is used to generate new ideas and find a solution for a specific issue. The members included for brainstorming can be domain experts, subject matter experts.
2. Document Analysis: It includes refer the user guides, previous requirements and documents, and existing systems of their organization. This technique is used to gather business information by reviewing/examining the available materials that describe the business environment. This analysis is helpful to validate the implementation of current solutions and is also helpful in understanding the business need.
3. Focus Groups: Focus Groups are a means to elicit ideas and attitudes about a specific product or service in an interactive group environment. The participants share their impressions, preferences, and needs, guided by a moderator. A focus group typically has 6-12 attendees
4. Reverse engineering: Reverse engineering is conducted in a situation where the software in an existing system has little or outdated documentation and it is very essential to understand what the system does. There are two general categories of reverse engineering:
Black box Reverse engineering: The system or product is studied without examining its internal structure.
White box Reverse engineering: The internal structure and inner working of the system or product is studied
5. Interview: An interview is a systematic approach to elicit the requirements from a person or a group of people informally or formally by talking to the person- interviewee asking relevant questions and documenting the responses
6. Observation: BA will visit the client location and observe and shadow users and their job, can provide information of existing processes, inputs, and outputs. There are two basic approaches for the observation technique:
7. Prototyping: This elicitation technique not only help to capture the requirement but also give more clarity to the stakeholder of their committed requirements by providing high fidelity of visual rendering before the application is developed and it also helps the developers to understand the requirements, functionality, and process flow of the application. Moreover, prototyping helps the stakeholders to visualize a solution by simulating it virtually.
8. Questionnaire: it will use when you have a large number of stakeholders to gather the information. It can use for obtaining limited system requirement details from stakeholders, who have a miner input or are geographically remote. The design of the questionnaire and type questions are important and influence the answer, so care is needed
9. JAD: It is an extended, facilitated technique. It involves collaboration between stakeholders and system analysts to identify needs and requirements in a concentrated and focused effort. It involves the client (Tech team and other key executives) or end-users sitting along with the technical team, PM, and BA in the designing and development process. Hence it gives a clear picture of and clarity in requirements.
10. Requirements Workshops: Requirements Workshop is a structured way to capture requirements. A workshop may be used to scope, discover, define, prioritize and reach closer on requirements for the target system. selected key stakeholders and subject matter experts are participated to hammer out the requirements.
11. Use case specs: A Use Case Specification is a description of the functionality provided by the system. A use case specification captures the requirements, typically of a system, in the form of a use case that contains the descriptive requirements steps in a logical sequence





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Re: Elicitation Techniques in Business Analysis
« Reply #91 on: March 21, 2022, 05:54:07 pm »
Requirement elicitation is the process of collecting information from stakeholders. It serves as a foundation in documenting the requirements for application development.
There are a number of elicitation techniques to gather requirements or to collect information from the stakeholders. Some of the requirement elicitation techniques are as follows.
Document analysis
Observation
Interview
Prototyping
Brainstorming
Workshop
JAD (Joint Application Development)
Reverse engineering
Surveys/Questionnaire

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Re: Elicitation Techniques in Business Analysis
« Reply #92 on: March 24, 2022, 10:52:08 pm »
There are a number of elicitation techniques to gather requirements or to collect the information from the stakeholders.
Requirements elicitation is one of the most complex, error-prone, communication-intensive, and challenging stages of the software development process, as it is pivotal in determining the budget, time estimate, and scope of a project. The clarity of requirements elicitation should be exceptional in order to deliver solutions that end-users find useful and satisfying.

Some of the requirement elicitation techniques are as follows.

1. Document analysis
2. Observation
3. Interview
4. Prototyping
5. Brainstorming
6. Workshop
7. JAD (Joint Application Development)
8. Reverse engineering
9. Surveys/Questionnaire


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Re: Elicitation Techniques in Business Analysis
« Reply #93 on: March 25, 2022, 09:18:25 pm »
Different types of elicitation techniques are -
  • Observation
    protyping
    interview
    JAD sessions
    Document Analysis
    Focus Groups
    Interface Analysis
    Requirements Workshops
    Survey/Questionnaire

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Re: Elicitation Techniques in Business Analysis
« Reply #94 on: March 29, 2022, 03:41:09 pm »
Requirements elicitation is one of the most complex, error-prone, communication-intensive, and challenging stages of the software development process, as it is pivotal in determining the budget, time estimate, and scope of a project. The clarity of requirements elicitation should be exceptional in order to deliver solutions that end-users find useful and satisfying.

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Re: Elicitation Techniques in Business Analysis
« Reply #95 on: March 30, 2022, 05:32:49 pm »
Elicitation Techniques in Business Analysis :-

1. Brainstorming : Brainstorming can be done either individually or in groups. The ideas collected can then be reviewed/analyzed and where relevant included within the system requirements.

2. Document Analysis : You may have documentation about your current system which could provide some of the input for the new system requirements. Such document could include interface details, user manuals and software vendor manuals

3. Reverse Engineering : In situations where the software for an existing system has little or outdated documentation and it is necessary to understand what the system actually does, reverse engineering is an elicitation technique that can extract process documents and also when driving the gap analysis for scoping of the migration projects.

4. Focus Groups : A focus group is a means to elicit ideas and attitudes about a specific product, service or oppurtunity in an interactive group environment. The participants share their impressions, preferences and needs, guided by a moderator.

5. Observation : Observing, shadowing users or even doing part of their job, can provide information of existing processes, inputs and outputs.

6. Workshop : Workshops can comprise 6-10 or more users/stakeholders, working together to identify requirements. Workshops tend to be of a defined duration, rather than outcome and may need to be briefly repeated in order to clarify or obtain further details.

7. JAD (Joint Application Document) : JAD technique is an extended, facilatated workshop. It involves collaboration between stakeholders and systems analysts to identify needs or requirements in a concentrated and focused effort.

8. Interview : Interviews of users and stakeholders are important in creating wonderful software. Without knowing the expectations and goal of the stakeholders and users, you are highly unlikely to satiate them.

9. Prototyping : Screen mockups can support the requirement gathering process when introduced at the right time.

10. Questionnaire(Survey) : Questionnaires can be usefu for obtaining limited system requirements details from users/stakeholders, who have a minor input or are geographically remote.

Sampada Kulkarni

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Re: Elicitation Techniques in Business Analysis
« Reply #96 on: April 04, 2022, 01:34:15 pm »
Types of elicitation techniques:

1.   Stakeholder Analysis
A stakeholder analysis is a process of identifying these people before the project begins Stakeholders can include team members, customers, stakeholders any individual who is impacted by the project. Stakeholder analysis is done to identify the stakeholders who will be impacted by the system.
2.   Brainstorming
Brainstorm technique allows the people to present their ideas without any criticism. This technique is used to generate new ideas and find a solution for a specific issue. The members included for brainstorming can be domain experts and subject matter experts. Multiple ideas and information gives a complete knowledge and we can choose from different ideas presented by various people.
3.   Interview
Interviews are nothing but one on one question answer sessions with the SME?s and multiple stakeholders. This is the most common technique used for requirement elicitation. One to one interview is the most commonly used technique.
There are 2 types of interviews
1.   Structured : BA has predefines set of questions to ask and obtain the details of any topic related to the project depending upon the role of the interviewee
2.   Unstructured: BA asks the questions without any predefined questions. This is kind of open ended way of question and answer session.

4.   Document Analysis: To start off with document analysis it is very important to glance and study about the present document to figure out the outline of a project. This analysis is helpful to validate the implementation of current solutions and is also helpful in understanding the business need of an organization. Sample initial document includes SOW, RFP, and existing guidelines, reviews of reports based on present data and product specifications.

5.   Focus Group
By using a focus group, we can get information about a product, service from a group. The Focus group includes subject matter experts. The objective of this group is to discuss the topic and provide information.
6.   Interface analysis
An interface is a connection between two components. Can be user interface, system to system interface or system to hardware device interface. Interface analysis is used to review the system, people, and processes. This analysis is used to identify how the information is exchanged between the components. An Interface can be described as a connection between two components.
7.   Observation
Observation depends on studying the people what while they perform any task in the project. This also called as ?Job shadowing? .The plan for observation ensures that all stakeholders are aware of the purpose of the observation session, they agree on the expected outcomes, and that the session meets their expectations.
1.   Active observation is to ask questions and try to attempt the work that other persons are doing.
2.   Passive observation is silent observation i.e. we sit with others and just observe how they are doing their work without interpreting them.

8.   Prototyping
Prototyping includes defining the models and mockups of the screens and layouts for any application. It is used to identify missing or unspecified requirements. In this technique, frequent demos are given to the client by creating the prototypes so that client can get an idea of how the product will look like.

9.   Joint Application Development (JAD)
This technique is more process-oriented and formal as compared to other techniques. These are structured meetings involving end-users, PMs, SMEs. This is used to define, clarify, and complete requirements.
10.   Survey/Questionnaire
For Survey/Questionnaire, a set of questions is given to stakeholders to quantify their thoughts. After collecting the responses from stakeholders, data is analyzed to identify the area of interest of stakeholders.
?   Open-Ended: Respondent is given the freedom to provide answers in their own words rather than selecting from predefined responses.
?   Close Ended: It includes a predefined set of answers for all the questions and the respondent has to choose from those answers. Questions can be multiple choice or can be ranked from not important to very important.





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Re: Elicitation Techniques in Business Analysis
« Reply #97 on: April 16, 2022, 12:01:26 am »
Requirement elicitation is the process of collecting information from stakeholders. It serves as a foundation in documenting the requirements for application development.
There are a number of elicitation techniques to gather requirements or to collect the information from the stakeholders. Some of the requirement elicitation techniques are as follows.
Document analysis
Observation
Interview
Prototyping
Brainstorming
Workshop
JAD (Joint Application Development)
Reverse engineering
Surveys/Questionnaire

12117192212

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Re: Elicitation Techniques in Business Analysis
« Reply #98 on: May 02, 2022, 06:42:50 pm »
Requirement analysis techniques are:-

1.Stakeholder analysis.
2.Brainstorming.
3.Document analysis.
4.Interface analysis.
5.JAD(Joint application development).
6.Focus group.
7.Prototyping.
8.Interview.
9.Survey/Questionnaire.
10.Observation.

12106197412

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Re: Elicitation Techniques in Business Analysis
« Reply #99 on: May 10, 2022, 04:12:22 pm »
Different types of elicitation  technique are used to gather information from stake holder. Multiple elicitation can be Techniques together to elicit information from stake holder.

*Brain storming: Brain storming technique contain group of stake holders to give deep thought about particular topic. This technique basically useful in developing new ideas.

*Document analysis: Document analysis is technique of gathering information from the documents of existing system.

*Reverse engineering: Reverse engineering technique is used when document of existing system is pretty outdated and has very less information. Reverse engineering is technique of studying current system and what it does .studying current system can be done in two ways it can be studied without examining internal structure or by examining internal structure.

*Focus Group. It is technique describe what attitude specific group of people has for product, services. In interactive season participant share their impression, preferences and needs. Focus groups classified in two types of group Homogeneous group  with similar skills and same back ground and heterogeneous group with different skills and different back ground people.

*Work Shop: Workshop allow bringing user and stake holder to gather and conversation are happened in more innovative tasks for example: Collaborative games, tasks.

*JAD: JAD is conducted by bringing Stake holder and developer together at same place. JAD provide high accurate level of requirement. Though JAD are conducted for different types purpose in SDLC JAD is Mostly conducted in two Ways, One is as eliciting technique and second is to clarify development teams doubts.

*Interview: This technique allow to systematically gather information from individual or from group of stake holder. Interview are conducted in both formal and informal way.

*Questionnaire: questionnaire contains sets of per-defined questions. This technique is utilized when stake holder are geographically distributed and there is less scope of conversation. This technique is limited to nominal and limited information.

*Prototyping: Prototyping is Visual presentation of Idea or requirement which gives clear picture of requirements. Visual Presentation are given terms Mock-up screens or graphical designed or requirement prototype.

*Observation: Information is gathered by observing stakeholder while they are working. This technique gives good understanding of process and work stakeholder do.

12208202501

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Re: Elicitation Techniques in Business Analysis
« Reply #100 on: May 14, 2022, 11:17:31 am »
Different types of Elicitation technique

Brainstorming can be done either individually or in groups where the Ideas collected can be reviewed analyzed and where relevant included within the system requirements. It can be the efficient way for users/stakeholders to define the requirements. Brainstorming is most effective with groups of 8-12 People and should be performed in a relaxed Environment.

Document Analysis for current system is done from the input of previous documentation (if it exists) could include interface details, user manuals and software vendor manuals. It has the advantage that we can transfer a lot of information to a new system requirements document. Document analysis can help in gap analysis for scoping of the migration projects.

Reverse Engineering help to extract implemented requirements from the software code where the software for an existing system has little or outdated documentation.
There are 2 types of reverse Engineering
1.   Black Box Reverse Engineering
2.   White Box Reverse Engineering

Focus Group is a means to get Ideas about a specific product, service or opportunity in an interactive group environment. A Focus group typically has 6-12 attendees. There are 2 focus groups Homogeneous- individual with Similar characteristics, Heterogeneous-Individuals with diverse background.

Observation- by Observing can provide information of existing Process, Inputs and Outputs.
There are two basic approaches for the observation technique.
1.   Passive/Invisible- will observes the SME working through the business routine but doesn?t ask questions.
2.   Active/Visible- will observes the current process and takes notes, he/she may interact with the worker.

Workshop can comprise of 6-10 or more users/stakeholders, working together to identify requirements. Workshops is helpful for common or system wide requirement. A workshop may be used to scope, discover, define, prioritize and reach closure on requirements for the target system.

JAD (Joint Application Development)- JAD is an extended facilitated workshop, it is the collaboration between the stakeholders and system analyst to identify the needs or requirements in a concentrated and focused effort. This technique allows for the simultaneous gathering and consolidating of large amounts of Information. The following steps is followed for JAD ? Define sessions, Research Product, Prepare, conduct session, draft the documents. The Participants may include Business Process owners, Operations Manager, End Users, IT Specialist etc.

Interview -As a BA Interview of users and stakeholders are important for the development of good software. Without knowing the expectation of stakeholders and users, its unlike to deliver them. As a BA an Interview is a systematic approach to elicit the information from a person or group of people in an informal or formal setting by talking to the person-the interviewee, asking relevant questions and documenting the responses.

Prototyping- Screen mockups or prototyping help in requirement gathering when it is introduced at right time, it is nice as it will help clients to visualize the functionality of the system. This can be big advantage to help analysts and stakeholders identify problems early on.

Questionnaire (Survey)
Obtaining the limited system requirements details from users/stakeholders from users/stakeholder who have minor input or are geographically remote. It helps to get input from users who are long distance away.
« Last Edit: May 14, 2022, 11:19:29 am by 12208202501 »

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Re: Elicitation Techniques in Business Analysis
« Reply #101 on: May 16, 2022, 06:59:55 pm »
Requirements Elicitation Techniques
1) Stakeholder Analysis
2) Brainstorming
3) Interview
4) Document Analysis/Review
5) Focus Group
6) Interface Analysis
7) Observation
8) Prototyping
9) Joint Application Development (JAD)/ Requirement Workshops
10) Survey/Questionnaire

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Re: Elicitation Techniques in Business Analysis
« Reply #102 on: May 17, 2022, 04:57:52 pm »
Requirement elicitation is the process to collect all the requirements related to a system from the end users, customers, and stakeholders. There are nine methods which can be used as part of requirement elicitation process, and these are:
1. Brainstorming
2. Interviews
3. Observation
4. Document Analysis
5. Focus Groups
6. Requirements Workshops
7. Interface Analysis
8. Survey or Questionnaire
9. Prototyping

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Re: Elicitation Techniques in Business Analysis
« Reply #103 on: June 02, 2022, 11:17:44 am »
rainstorming: All the necessary stakeholders come together and discuss about the requirements and unique ideas are then noted. 

 

Document Analysis: Data relevant to this new project may have essential data inputs from prior projects such as project manuals and other documents which are referred.

Reverse Engineering: Existing products inner working and product internal details are studied.

Focus Groups: Participants usually 6-12 talk about their perspective of the product usually characteristics, what they like and what they don't.

Observations: The users are followed and day to day process is observed to get a better understanding if the product.

Workshop: Consist of 6-10 stakeholders who work together to identify the requirements in a specified time period.

Joint Application Development: It is an extension of workshop where stakeholders from both project and business are involved and focuses on gathering the requirement.

Interview: All the necessary key stakeholders are interviewed their requirements and learnt using questioning and their answers are documented.

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Re: Elicitation Techniques in Business Analysis
« Reply #104 on: June 06, 2022, 09:57:29 am »
It is all about obtaining information from stakeholders. In other words, once the business analysis has communicated with stakeholders for understanding their requirements, it can be described as elicitation. It can also be described as a requirement gathering.
Requirement elicitation can be done by communicating with stakeholders directly or by doing some research, experiments. The activities can be planned, unplanned, or both.
Planned activities: include workshops, experiments.
Unplanned activities: happen randomly. Prior notice is not required for such activities. For example, you directly go to the client site and start discussing the requirements however there was no specific agenda published in advance.

1. Brainstorming:

This technique is used to generate new ideas and find a solution for a specific issue. The members included for brainstorming can be domain experts, subject matter experts. Multiple ideas and information give you a repository of knowledge and you can choose from different ideas.
This session is generally conducted around the table discussion. All participants should be given an equal amount of time to express their ideas.

Brainstorming technique is used to answer the below questions:
What is the expectation of a system?
What are the risk factors that affect the proposed system development and what to do to avoid that?
What are the business and organization rules required to follow?
What are the options available to resolve the current issues?
What should we do so that this particular issue does not happen in the future?
There are some basic rules for this technique which should be followed to make it a success:
The time limit for the session should be predefined.
Identify the participants in advance. One should include 6-8 members for the session.
The agenda should be clear enough for all the participants.
Clear expectations should be set with the participants.
Once you get all the information, combine the ideas, and remove the duplicate ideas.
Once the final list is ready, distribute it among other parties.
Benefits:
Creative thinking is the result of the brainstorming session.
Plenty of ideas in a short time.
Promotes equal participation.
Drawbacks:
Participants can be involved in debating ideas.
There can be multiple duplicate ideas.

2. Document Analysis:

This technique is used to gather business information by reviewing/examining the available materials that describe the business environment. This analysis is helpful to validate the implementation of current solutions and is also helpful in understanding the business need.
Document analysis includes reviewing the business plans, technical documents, problem reports, existing requirement documents, etc. This is useful when the plan is to update an existing system. This technique is useful for migration projects.
This technique is important in identifying the gaps in the system i.e. to compare the AS-IS process with the TO-BE process. This analysis also helps when the person who has prepared the existing documentation is no longer present in the system.

Benefits:
Existing documents can be used to compare current and future processes.
Existing documents can be used as a base for future analysis.
Drawbacks:
Existing documents might not be updated.
Existing documents might be completely outdated.
Resources worked on the existing documents might not be available to provide information.
This process is time-consuming.

3. Reverse engineering:

This elicitation technique is generally used in migration projects. If an existing system has outdated documentation, it can be reverse engineered to understand what the system does. This is an elicitation technique that can extract implemented requirements from the system.
There are two types of reverse engineering techniques.
Black box reverse engineering: The system is studied without examining its internal structure (function and composition of software).
White box reverse engineering: The inner workings of the system are studied (analysing and understanding of software code).

4. Focus Group:

By using a focus group, you can get information about a product, service from a group. The Focus group includes subject matter experts. The objective of this group is to discuss the topic and provide information. A moderator manages this session.
The moderator should work with business analysts to analyse the results and provide findings to the stakeholders.
If a product is under development and the discussion is required on that product then the result will be to update the existing requirement or you might get new requirements. If a product is ready to ship then the discussion will be on releasing the product.


How Focus groups are different than group interviews?
A Focus group is not an interview session conducted as a group; rather it is a discussion during which feedback is collected on a specific subject. The session results are usually analysed and reported. A focus group typically consists of 6 to 12 members. If you want more participants then create more than one focus group.

5.Observation:

This elicitation technique helps in collecting requirements by observing users or stakeholders. This can provide information about the exiting process, inputs and outputs. There are two kinds of observations ? active and passive.
In active observation, the business analyst directly observes the users or stakeholders, whereas in passive observation the business analyst observes the subject matter experts.
This helps the business team understand the requirements when users are unable to explain requirements clearly.

6. Workshop:

Workshops comprise a group of users or stakeholders working together to identify requirements. A requirement workshop is a structured way to capture requirements. Workshops are used to scope, discover, define, and prioritize requirements for the proposed system.
They are the most effective way to deliver high-quality requirements quickly. They promote mutual understanding and strong communication between users or stakeholders and the project team.

7.JAD (Joint Application Development):

Joint Application Development (JAD) technique is an extended session to the workshop. In the JAD session stakeholders and project team works together to identify the requirements. These sessions allow the business team to gather and consolidate large amounts of information. Identification of stakeholders is the critical to the overall success of the JAD session. The JAD team includes business process owners, client representatives, seers or stakeholders, business analysts, project managers, IT experts (developers, quality assurance, designers, and security).

8. Interview:

An interview is a systematic approach to elicit information from a person or group of people. In this case, the business analyst acts as an interviewer. An interview provides an opportunity to explore and/or clarify requirements in more detail. Without knowing the expectations and goals of the stakeholders it is difficult to fulfil requirements.

9. Prototyping:
Screen mock-ups can support the requirement gathering process, when introduced at the correct time. Mock-ups help stakeholders visualize the functionality of a system. This can be an advantage to business analysts and stakeholders since this allows them to identify gaps/problems early on.

10. Surveys/Questionnaires:

Questionnaires are useful when there is a lot of information to be gathered from a larger group of stakeholders. This enables the business team to gather requirements from stakeholders remotely. The design of the questionnaire is very important, since it can influence the answers that people provide.
In addition to the above-mentioned elicitation techniques, there are many more are on the market. It is very difficult to say that which elicitation technique is suitable for all projects. Not all elicitation techniques can be executed for every project.
When selecting an elicitation method, factors such as the nature of the project, organizational structure and type of stakeholders are taken into account by the business team before deciding which technique works best. Having said that, brainstorming, document analysis, interviews, prototyping and workshops are the most widely used requirement elicitation techniques.